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Once the applications for certiorari have been processed, the judges begin to discuss the cases that have been heard since their last conference. According to the Supreme Court transcript, all judges have the opportunity to express their views on the case and to express questions or concerns. Each judge speaks about the others without interruption. The Chief Justice makes the first statement, then each judge speaks in descending order of seniority and ends with the lowest judge – the one who has served the fewest years on the court. In addition to adjudicating these cases, each judge is responsible for urgent petitions and other matters from one or more of the 13 federal districts. As a result, judges are sometimes asked to stop the execution of a district court order, fix bail for an accused or stop the deportation of an alien. Judges also deal with requests for stays of execution. After the filing of the first claims, the plaintiff and the defendant may file briefs of shorter length corresponding to the respective position of the other party. If not directly involved in the matter, the U.S. government, represented by the Attorney General, may file a brief on behalf of the government. With the court`s permission, groups that have no vested interest in the outcome of the case, but are nonetheless interested in it, can file a so-called amicus curiae (Latin for “friend of the court”) in which they set out their own arguments and recommendations for deciding the case. Greenhouse notes that the Supreme Court and its decisions are not always popular with Americans.

One of the current disagreements surrounding the Supreme Court is how judges should think about it. Civil cases are similar to criminal cases, but instead of mediating between the state and a person or organization, they deal with disputes between individuals or organizations. In civil cases, if a party believes that his or her wrongs have been committed, he or she may take legal action in a civil court to try to remedy the wrongs through a cease and desist order, a change in behaviour or financial compensation. Once the prosecution has been commenced and evidence has been gathered and presented by both parties, a trial as in a criminal case continues. If the parties involved waive their right to a jury trial, the case may be decided by a judge; Otherwise, the case will be decided by a jury and damages will be awarded. Supreme Court justices hear oral arguments and decide cases that have been granted certiorari. These are usually controversial cases brought before lower courts of appeal. The court receives between 7,000 and 8,000 applications per quarter and hears oral arguments in about 80 cases. The court protects the ability of Americans to say what they want, what they want. Realistic court simulations focus on Bill of Rights cases with juvenile scenarios. Before counsel for the plaintiff leaves the gallery after the first presentation, he or she may set aside some time for rebuttal after counsel for the defendant has appeared. It is the plaintiff – not the court – who is responsible for tracking the remaining time for rebuttal.

In typical program simulations, more than one student lawyer argues on each side. In this case, they must inform the student member before the hearing begins of how they wish to divide their time. Typically, the first student lawyer who speaks also handles the rebuttal. Judges must exercise considerable discretion in deciding which cases to hear, as approximately 7,000 to 8,000 civil and criminal cases are filed annually by the Supreme Court through the various state and federal courts. The Supreme Court also has “trial jurisdiction” in a very small number of cases arising from interstate or state-federal disputes. Hamilton had written that the court, through the practice of judicial review, ensured that the will of the whole people, as expressed in its constitution, took precedence over the will of a legislature whose statutes could only express the temporary will of a part of the people. And Madison wrote that the interpretation of the Constitution should be left to the reasoned judgment of independent judges, not to the tumult and conflict of the political process. If every constitutional issue was decided by public political negotiations, Madison argued that the Constitution would be reduced to a battleground of competing factions, political fervor, and partisanship. The Court`s workload is almost exclusively appealable, and the Court`s decisions cannot be challenged by any authority, since it is the final judicial arbiter in the United States on matters of federal law.

However, the court may hear appeals from the highest state courts or federal courts of appeal. The Court also has original jurisdiction over limited types of cases, including those involving ambassadors and other diplomats, as well as inter-state cases. If the court grants certiorari, the judges accept the pleadings of the parties to the case, as well as those of the amicus curiae or “friends of the court.” This can include industry trade groups, academics, or even the U.S. government itself. Before rendering a judgment, the Supreme Court usually hears oral arguments in which the various parties to the application present their arguments and the judges ask them questions. When the case involves the federal government, the U.S. Attorney General makes arguments on behalf of the United States. The judges then hold private lectures, make their decision, and (often after a period of several months) deliver the court`s opinion as well as any dissenting arguments that may have been written. The courts only hear cases of fact and controversy – a party must prove that they have suffered harm in order to take legal action. This means that the courts do not rule on the constitutionality of laws or the legality of acts if the judgment has no practical effect. Cases before the judiciary usually range from the District Court to the Court of Appeal and may even end up in the Supreme Court, although the Supreme Court hears relatively few cases each year. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the land and the only part of the federal judiciary explicitly required by the Constitution.

The Court of Appeal usually has the final say on the matter, unless it sends the case back to the trial court for a new hearing. In some cases, the decision may be reviewed in a bench, that is, by a larger group of judges of the county Court of Appeals. Bench – n. where a judge sits in a court The Judicial Act of 1789 set the size of the court at six; one Chief Justice and five Associate Justices. Over time, the Court grew to ten judges. With the Judiciary Act of 1869, Congress reduced the number to nine, a number that has remained constant to this day. How long do you argue before the Supreme Court? Typically, each party has 30 minutes of reasoning to convince judges that their interpretation of the law is correct. Almost all the cases judges hear are reviews of the decisions of other courts – there are no jurors or witnesses. Judges consider the records given to them, including the decisions of the lower courts for each stage of a case, the evidence and arguments presented to them in their final decision. Linda Greenhouse is a journalist who sued the Supreme Court for 30 years. She says the courtroom is not very big.

It can hold a few hundred people. The judges sit behind a bench, but their seats are only raised about a metre above the ground. In cases involving constitutional issues, judges try to use an originalist interpretation to take into account what Americans thought about the subject in 1789, when the Constitution came into effect. The idea behind this mindset, Slattery says, is to prevent judges from letting their personal opinions influence their decisions. Opinions in private are drawn up by a single judge to rule on a party`s request for interim measures, such as a stay of the lower court`s judgment, leave to stay or an injunction.

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