Two approaches have proven useful in preventing injuries: universal and targeted. One-size-fits-all approaches, such as national building codes for stairs, provincial motor vehicle safety standards, and community pool fencing orders, improve public safety based on the specific cause by addressing the determinants of injury in general . Targeted approaches include equity-based initiatives, such as accessible affordable housing for persons with disabilities and low-cost safety equipment for low-income persons, that address community-specific determinants such as vulnerability or wealth  by increasing safety behaviours and ensuring that policy initiatives target targeted community members [5, 6]. A common feature of universal and targeted approaches is the need for partnerships across multiple sectors and levels to address the key determinants of injury . Although partnership structures can range from informal to legally linked, everyone works together to achieve a common goal .  Silberberg, M., Cook, J., Drescher, C., McCloskey, D.J., Weaver, S., and Ziegahn, L. (2011). Principles of Social Engagement (2nd ed.). (NIH Publication #11-7782). Excerpted from the Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry website: www.atsdr.cdc.gov/communityengagement/pdf/PCE_Report_508_FINAL.pdf.
(Review) ___2. Diagnose and investigate health problems and health risks in the community.  Lovick Edwards, S. & Freedman Stern, R. (1998). Building and Maintaining Community Partnerships on Adolescent Contraception: A Discussion Paper. Houston, TX: Cornerstone Consulting Group, Inc. From aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/teenp/teenpreg/teenpreg.htm (guidance document) ___Active partnerships with professional education programs to ensure community-relevant learning experiences for all students. Start of partnerships. All but one TFM emphasized the importance of partnerships.
However, the literature has shown differently which aspects are crucial for the development of partnerships. Delivering as Engaged was cited most often (86%), followed by structured meetings (71%), recruitment of stakeholders and key organizational members and partners (57%), and capacity building activities (43%). The Ontario Public Health Standards for Injury Prevention  require collaboration with community partners to optimize the delivery of public health services through shared resources and responsibilities . Effective injury prevention requires this concerted effort to formulate sustainable, context-specific solutions from published interventions that are typically tested in controlled environments . A recent literature review on intersectoral partnerships in health promotion described positive processes to improve the health of the general population . It remains unclear how different community partners will be engaged to reduce unintentional injuries . Ontario`s Injury Prevention Guidance Document lists promising programs, but does not currently present theories, frameworks or models on how local public health professionals can engage community partners for effective injury prevention . Proven interventions must be adequately supported to be effective, so local public health professionals must also understand how community-wide partnerships can be facilitated to achieve socially meaningful injury reduction . ___Systematic planning at the community and state level to improve health in all jurisdictions.
___5. Develop strategies and plans that support individual and community health efforts. Community mobilization is essentially reaching out to different sectors of a community and building partnerships to focus on and ultimately address an urgent issue such as teen pregnancy. Community mobilization supports teen pregnancy prevention efforts by empowering community members and groups to take action to facilitate change. This includes mobilising the necessary resources, disseminating information, generating support and promoting cooperation between the public and private sectors in the Community. Engagement efforts are often described in the literature as “building community or cooperative partnerships,” “community engagement or participation,” or “building coalitions.” While some of these terms refer to specific structures, the underlying goal of mobilizing a wide range of community members to create and implement a shared vision is the same: “Community partners shall implement [a] community action plan by pooling and leveraging resources, including skills, funds and other assets. This process, known as “mobilization,” is expected to improve the capacity of the community as a whole to treat teenage pregnancy. The results show that the use of theories, frameworks and models in community-based injury prevention programs is rare and often undocumented. There is a theory and different conceptual models and frameworks for engaging partners to jointly prevent injuries; However, there are few evaluations of the processes for creating Community measures. Our results also suggest that less attention is paid to maintaining and evaluating adult injury prevention community work, particularly in the mobilization and post-mobilization phases. We found only one process or outcome evaluation among the studies reviewed, suggesting a lack of evidence to support investment in such partnership work, similar to an earlier review that found that behavioural and social science theories and models are rarely represented in injury prevention research .
Although Nilsen`s logic model  provides theoretical considerations about what works, how, and why, very few of the studies we reviewed included an assessment of reliability and validity. More than half of the documents reviewed did not contain any information on the methods used to create their respective TFMs. Therefore, by reviewing all of the TFMs in this review that included the need for an evaluation, we developed a logic model that outlines the inputs, outputs and desired outcomes needed in the context of injury prevention initiatives in community facilities (see Figure 2) to articulate what a partnership needs. What he expects, how he will operate and what success he hopes to achieve. Based on research, this document summarizes 14 key strategies based on best practices in community mobilization, collaborative partnerships and coalition building. Part A fellows will find that many of these strategies overlap with best practices for engaging key stakeholders and best practices for working in different communities.  Whitley, J. R. (2002). A guide to organizing community forums.
Boston, MA: Community Catalyst. Access to www.communitycatalyst.org/doc_store/publications/a_guide_to_organizing_community_forums_jul02.pdf(Practice Notice) Therefore, the purpose of this document was to conduct a scoping review to identify theories, frameworks and models (TFMs) that clarify how and for what purpose partners can be engaged in community-based adult injury prevention, by seeking evidence from a range of real-world sources. rather than being limited to a certain level of quality (e.g. randomised controlled trials). In the absence of published literature reviews, a scoping review is a systematic way to analyze and consolidate existing literature to further articulate the concept of partner engagement, identify knowledge gaps, and inform future directions related to community-based adult injury prevention. In summary, this scoping review summarizes theories, frameworks and models (TFMs) found in the available literature on community-based injury prevention. We propose a logic model that combines key elements from all TFMs involved in a promising process that better highlights the contributions and activities required for public health practitioners to establish and maintain partnerships that actively contribute to injury prevention, as well as plans to evaluate their success. The Librarian Member, in consultation with researchers from Public Health Ontario and Library Shared Services, developed search strategies to find relevant articles. Keywords and keywords include: 1) theory/framework/model (e.g., paradigm, strategy, approach); (2) advocacy (e.g. capacity building, coalition, cooperation, community network, cross-sectoral partnership); and 3) injury prevention (e.g., accident prevention, falls, protective devices, safety). Die erste Suchphase umfasste Datenbanken wie Ovid MEDLINE (einschließlich In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations und Epub Ahead of Print), EBSCO CINAHL, ProQuest PsycINFO, ProQuest Sociological Abstracts. Die zweite Phase der Suche umfasste Theses Canada, DART Europe E-theses Portal, EThOS (UK e-Theses online), TROVE (National Library of Australia), Public Health Databases und Grey Literature Repositories (Canadian Public Policy Collection, Canadian Best Practices Portal/Public Health Agency of Canada, Ontario Prevention Clearinghouse), custom search engines (Canadian Public Health Information, Ontario Public Health Unit, State Government Information).